Randomized phase II trial of sulindac, atorvastatin, and prebiotic dietary fiber for colorectal cancer chemoprevention

Paul J. Limburg, Michelle R. Mahoney, Katie L.Allen Ziegler, Stephen J. Sontag, Robert E. Schoen, Richard Benya, Michael J. Lawson, David S. Weinberg, Elena Stoffel, Michael Chiorean, Russell Heigh, Joel Levine, Gary Della'Zanna, Luz Rodriguez, Ellen Richmond, Christopher Gostout, Sumithra J. Mandrekar, Thomas C. Smyrk

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52 Scopus citations

Abstract

Sulindac, atorvastatin, or prebiotic dietary fiber may reduce colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. However, clinical trial data are currently limited. We conducted a randomized, phase II chemoprevention trial involving subjects 40 years or older, with previously resected colon cancer or multiple/advanced colorectal adenomas. Magnification chromoendoscopy (MCE) was performed to identify and characterize rectal aberrant crypt foci (ACF); eligibility criteria required five or more rectal ACFs at baseline. Intervention assignments were as follows: (a) atorvastatin 20 mg qd; (b) sulindac 150 mg bid; (c) oligofructose-enriched inulin (as ORAFTI®Synergy1) 6 gm bid; or (d) control (maltodextrin) 6 gm bid, for 6 months. Percent change in rectal ACF number (%ΔACF) within arm was the primary endpoint. Secondary endpoints included changes in proliferation (Ki67) and apoptosis (caspase-3), as measured from normal mucosa biopsy samples. Among 85 eligible randomized subjects, 76 (86%) completed the trial per protocol. The median (range) of rectal ACF was 9 (5-34) and 8 (0-37) at baseline and postintervention, respectively. The median (SD) for %ΔACF was 5.6 (-69% to 143%), -18.6 (-83% to 160%), -3.6 (-88% to 83%), and -10.0 (-100% to 117%) in the atorvastatin, sulindac, ORAFTI®Synergy1 and control arms, respectively. Neither within-arm (P = 0.12-0.59) nor between-arm (P = 0.30-0.92) comparisons of %ΔACF were statistically significant. The active and control interventions also seemed to have similar effects on mucosal proliferation and apoptosis (P > 0.05 for each comparison). Data from this multicenter, phase II trial do not provide convincing evidence of CRC risk reduction from 6-month interventions with atorvastatin, sulindac, or ORAFTI®Synergy1, although statistical power was limited by the relatively small sample size.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)259-269
Number of pages11
JournalCancer Prevention Research
Volume4
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 2011

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research

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    Limburg, P. J., Mahoney, M. R., Ziegler, K. L. A., Sontag, S. J., Schoen, R. E., Benya, R., Lawson, M. J., Weinberg, D. S., Stoffel, E., Chiorean, M., Heigh, R., Levine, J., Della'Zanna, G., Rodriguez, L., Richmond, E., Gostout, C., Mandrekar, S. J., & Smyrk, T. C. (2011). Randomized phase II trial of sulindac, atorvastatin, and prebiotic dietary fiber for colorectal cancer chemoprevention. Cancer Prevention Research, 4(2), 259-269. https://doi.org/10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-10-0215