Context: Increased prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus and prediabetes worldwide is attributed in part to an unhealthy diet. Objective: To evaluate whether 12 weeks of high monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) or fiber-rich weight-maintenance diet lowers hepatic fat and improves glucose tolerance in peoplewith prediabetes. Design: Subjects underwent a [6, 6-2H2]-labeled 75-g oral glucose tolerance test to estimate hepatic insulin sensitivity and liver fat fraction (LFF) using magnetic resonance spectroscopy before and after intervention. Setting: Mayo Clinic Clinical Research Trials Unit. Participants: 43 subjects with prediabetes. Intervention: Subjects were randomized into three isocaloric weight-maintaining diets containing MUFA (olive oil), extra fiber, and standard US food (control-habitual diet). Outcome Measures: LFF, glucose tolerance, and indices of insulin action and secretion. Results: Body weight was maintained constant in all groups during the intervention. Glucose and hormonal concentrations were similar in all groups before, and unchanged after, 12 weeks of intervention. LFF was significantly lower after intervention in the MUFA group (P , 0.0003) but remained unchanged in the fiber (P = 0.25) and control groups (P = 0.45). After 12 weeks, LFF was significantly lower in the MUFA than in the control group (P = 0.01), but fiber and control groups did not differ (P = 0.41). Indices of insulin action and secretion were not significantly different between the MUFA and control groups after intervention (P ≥ 0.11), but within-group comparison showed higher hepatic (P = 0.01) and total insulin sensitivity (P < 0.04) with MUFA. Conclusions: Twelve weeks of a MUFA diet decreases hepatic fat and improves both hepatic and total insulin sensitivity.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
- Clinical Biochemistry
- Biochemistry, medical