Introduction: Radium-223 (Ra-223) has been recommended for bone-dominant metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Second-generation hormone therapy in combination with Ra-223 in mCRPC has been utilized, yet its benefit has not been well elucidated. We investigated the potential survival benefit of concomitant enzalutamide with Ra-223 in the third-line setting and predictors of improved overall survival (OS). Patients and Methods: We retrospectively identified 51 patients with bone-dominant mCRPC that were treated with Ra-223 in the postchemotherapy and post–hormone therapy setting, either alone (group A; n = 32) or with concomitant enzalutamide (group B; n = 19). The primary endpoint was to study the OS difference between groups A and B. The secondary endpoint was to identify predictors of improved OS with Ra-223 in the third-line setting. Results: Mean age was 70.9 years, median baseline prostatic-specific antigen (PSA) was 23.1 ng/mL, alkaline phosphatase was 91 IU/L, and hemoglobin was 12.5 g/dL. There was no difference in median OS between groups A and B, at 20.4 versus 17.5 months, respectively (P = .5186). In univariate and multivariate analyses, only pre–Ra-223 PSA < 30 ng/mL and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status < 2 were associated with improved OS. Conclusion: In our study cohort, concomitant use of enzalutamide with Ra-223 in the mCRPC setting was not associated with improved OS. Only pretreatment PSA < 30 ng/mL and pretreatment Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status < 2 were associated with improved OS. Further prospective studies are warranted.
- Advanced prostate cancer
- Bone-dominant metastatic prostate cancer
- Hormone refractory disease
- Second-generation hormone therapy
- Survival outcomes
ASJC Scopus subject areas