OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this study is to determine whether recombinant human morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) alters the findings on routine radiographs performed after transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF). MATERIALS AND METHODS. A retrospective review of 256 TLIF procedures in 200 patients was performed over a 4-year period. The rhBMP-2 group included 204 TLIFs in 160 patients, and the control group included 52 TLIFs in 40 patients. Two musculoskeletal radiologists reviewed the postoperative radiographs for endplate resorption, resorption resolution, new bone formation, bridging bone, and allograft migration. Statistical analysis was performed using logistic regression. RESULTS. The median age was 53 years in the rhBMP-2 group and 54 years in the control group (p = 0.182). The groups were similar with regard to sex (p = 0.517), single or multilevel TLIF (p = 0.921), specific TLIF levels (p = 0.53), and median radiographic follow-up (373 vs 366 days; p = 0.34). Findings that were more common in the rhBMP-2 group than in the control group included endplate resorption (38% [78/204] vs 12% [6/52]; odds ratio [OR], 4.67; 95% CI, 1.99-12.54; p < 0.001), resorption resolution (59% [46/78] vs 0% [0/6]; OR, 8.09; 95% CI, 1.41 to ∞; p = 0.022), new bone formation (84% [171/204] vs 67% [35/52]; OR, 2.51; 95% CI, 1.24-4.99; p = 0.011), bridging bone (55% [112/204] vs 31% [16/52]; OR, 2.73; 95% CI, 1.43-5.34; p = 0.002), and allograft migration (17% [35/204] vs 2% [1/52]; OR, 6.30; 95% CI, 0.91-151.41; p = 0.065). CONCLUSION. A statistically significant higher frequency of endplate resorption, new bone formation, and bone bridging is present in TLIF augmented by rhBMP-2 compared with TLIF performed without rhBMP-2. Endplate resorption resolves without treatment in most cases after rhBMP-2 use.
- Bone resorption
- Lumbosacral region
- Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2
- Spinal fusion
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging