Racial/Ethnic and Sex Differences in Emergency Medical Services Transport Among Hospitalized US Stroke Patients

Analysis of the National Get With The Guidelines-Stroke Registry

Heidi Mochari-Greenberger, Ying Xian, Anne S. Hellkamp, Phillip Schulte, Deepak L. Bhatt, Gregg C. Fonarow, Jeffrey L. Saver, Mathew J. Reeves, Lee H. Schwamm, Eric E. Smith

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

16 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Differences in activation of emergency medical services (EMS) may contribute to racial/ethnic and sex disparities in stroke outcomes. The purpose of this study was to determine whether EMS use varied by race/ethnicity and sex among a current, diverse national sample of hospitalized acute stroke patients.

METHODS AND RESULTS: We analyzed data from 398,798 stroke patients admitted to 1613 Get With The Guidelines-Stroke participating hospitals between October 2011 and March 2014. Multivariable logistic regression was used to evaluate the associations between combinations of racial/ethnic and sex groups with EMS use, adjusting for potential confounders including demographics, medical history, and stroke symptoms. Patients were 50% female, 69% white, 19% black, 8% Hispanic, 3% Asian, and 1% other, and 86% had ischemic stroke. Overall, 59% of stroke patients were transported to the hospital by EMS. White women were most likely to use EMS (62%); Hispanic men were least likely to use EMS (52%). After adjustment for patient characteristics, Hispanic and Asian men and women had 20% to 29% lower adjusted odds of using EMS versus their white counterparts; black women were less likely than white women to use EMS (odds ratio 0.75, 95% CI 0.72 to 0.77). Patients with weakness or paresis, altered level of consciousness, and/or aphasia were significantly more likely to use EMS than patients without each symptom; the observed racial/ethnic and sex differences in EMS use remained significant after adjustment for stroke symptoms.

CONCLUSIONS: EMS use differed by race/ethnicity and sex. These contemporary data document suboptimal use of EMS transport among US stroke patients, especially by racial/ethnic minorities and those with less recognized stroke symptoms.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)e002099
JournalJournal of the American Heart Association
Volume4
Issue number8
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 12 2015
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Emergency Medical Services
Sex Characteristics
Registries
Stroke
Guidelines
Hispanic Americans
Consciousness Disorders
Aphasia
Paresis
Ethnic Groups
Hospital Emergency Service
Logistic Models
Odds Ratio
Demography

Keywords

  • disparities
  • emergency medical services
  • race/ethnicity
  • sex
  • stroke

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

Cite this

Racial/Ethnic and Sex Differences in Emergency Medical Services Transport Among Hospitalized US Stroke Patients : Analysis of the National Get With The Guidelines-Stroke Registry. / Mochari-Greenberger, Heidi; Xian, Ying; Hellkamp, Anne S.; Schulte, Phillip; Bhatt, Deepak L.; Fonarow, Gregg C.; Saver, Jeffrey L.; Reeves, Mathew J.; Schwamm, Lee H.; Smith, Eric E.

In: Journal of the American Heart Association, Vol. 4, No. 8, 12.08.2015, p. e002099.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Mochari-Greenberger, Heidi ; Xian, Ying ; Hellkamp, Anne S. ; Schulte, Phillip ; Bhatt, Deepak L. ; Fonarow, Gregg C. ; Saver, Jeffrey L. ; Reeves, Mathew J. ; Schwamm, Lee H. ; Smith, Eric E. / Racial/Ethnic and Sex Differences in Emergency Medical Services Transport Among Hospitalized US Stroke Patients : Analysis of the National Get With The Guidelines-Stroke Registry. In: Journal of the American Heart Association. 2015 ; Vol. 4, No. 8. pp. e002099.
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abstract = "BACKGROUND: Differences in activation of emergency medical services (EMS) may contribute to racial/ethnic and sex disparities in stroke outcomes. The purpose of this study was to determine whether EMS use varied by race/ethnicity and sex among a current, diverse national sample of hospitalized acute stroke patients.METHODS AND RESULTS: We analyzed data from 398,798 stroke patients admitted to 1613 Get With The Guidelines-Stroke participating hospitals between October 2011 and March 2014. Multivariable logistic regression was used to evaluate the associations between combinations of racial/ethnic and sex groups with EMS use, adjusting for potential confounders including demographics, medical history, and stroke symptoms. Patients were 50{\%} female, 69{\%} white, 19{\%} black, 8{\%} Hispanic, 3{\%} Asian, and 1{\%} other, and 86{\%} had ischemic stroke. Overall, 59{\%} of stroke patients were transported to the hospital by EMS. White women were most likely to use EMS (62{\%}); Hispanic men were least likely to use EMS (52{\%}). After adjustment for patient characteristics, Hispanic and Asian men and women had 20{\%} to 29{\%} lower adjusted odds of using EMS versus their white counterparts; black women were less likely than white women to use EMS (odds ratio 0.75, 95{\%} CI 0.72 to 0.77). Patients with weakness or paresis, altered level of consciousness, and/or aphasia were significantly more likely to use EMS than patients without each symptom; the observed racial/ethnic and sex differences in EMS use remained significant after adjustment for stroke symptoms.CONCLUSIONS: EMS use differed by race/ethnicity and sex. These contemporary data document suboptimal use of EMS transport among US stroke patients, especially by racial/ethnic minorities and those with less recognized stroke symptoms.",
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