Racial and ethnic disparities in management and outcomes of cardiac arrest complicating acute myocardial infarction

Anna V. Subramaniam, Sri Harsha Patlolla, Wisit Cheungpasitporn, Pranathi R. Sundaragiri, P. Elliott Miller, Gregory W. Barsness, Malcolm R. Bell, David R. Holmes, Saraschandra Vallabhajosyula

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BACKGROUND: The role of race and ethnicity in the outcomes of cardiac arrest (CA) complicating acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is incompletely understood. METHODS AND RESULTS: This was a retrospective cohort study of adult admissions with AMI-CA from the National Inpatient Sample (2012–2017). Self-reported race/ethnicity was classified as White, Black, and others (Hispanic, Asian or Pacific Islander, Native American, Other). Outcomes of interest included in-hospital mortality, coronary angiography, percutaneous coronary intervention, palliative care consultation, do-not-resuscitate status use, hospitalization costs, hospital length of stay, and discharge disposition. Of the 3.5 million admissions with AMI, CA was noted in 182 750 (5.2%), with White, Black, and other races/ethnicities constituting 74.8%, 10.7%, and 14.5%, respectively. Black patients admitted with AMI-CA were more likely to be female, with more comorbidities, higher rates of non–ST-segment–elevation myocardial infarction, and higher neurological and renal failure. Admissions of patients of Black and other races/ethnicities underwent coronary angiography (61.9% versus 70.2% versus 73.1%) and percutaneous coronary intervention (44.6% versus 53.0% versus 58.1%) less frequently compared to patients of white race (p<0.001). Admissions of patients with AMI-CA had significantly higher unadjusted mortality (47.4% and 47.4%) as compared with White patients admitted (40.9%). In adjusted analyses, Black race was associated with lower in-hospital mortality (odds ratio [OR], 0.95; 95% CI, 0.91–0.99; P=0.007) whereas other races had higher in-hospital mortality (OR, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.08–1.15; P<0.001) compared with White race. Admissions of Black patients with AMI-CA had longer length of hospital stay, higher rates of palliative care consultation, less frequent do-not-resuscitate status use, and fewer discharges to home (all P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Racial and ethnic minorities received less frequent guideline-directed procedures and had higher in-hospital mortality and worse outcomes in AMI-CA.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere019907
JournalJournal of the American Heart Association
Issue number11
StatePublished - 2021


  • Acute myocardial infarction
  • Cardiac arrest
  • Healthcare disparities
  • Minorities
  • Outcomes research
  • Race

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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