Lower extremity peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a chronic, debilitating disease with a significant global burden. A number of diagnostic imaging techniques exist, including computed tomography angiography (CTA) and contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CEMRA), to aid in PAD diagnosis and subsequent treatment planning. Due to concerns of renal toxicity or nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) for iodinated and gadolinium-based contrasts, respectively, a number of non-enhanced MRA (NEMRA) protocols are being increasingly used in PAD diagnosis. These techniques, including time of flight and phase contrast MRA, have previously demonstrated poor image quality, long acquisition times, and/or susceptibility to artifacts when compared to existing contrast-enhanced techniques. In recent years, Quiescent-Interval Single-Shot (QISS) MRA has been developed to overcome these limitations in NEMRA methods, with promising results. Here, we review the various screening and diagnostic tests currently used for PAD. The various NEMRA protocols are discussed, followed by a comprehensive review of the literature on QISS MRA to date. A particular emphasis is placed on QISS MRA feasibility studies and studies comparing the diagnostic accuracy and image quality of QISS MRA versus other diagnostic imaging techniques in PAD.
- Non-enhanced MRA
- Peripheral arterial disease
- Quiescent-interval single-shot
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Clinical Biochemistry