Quality and Equitable Health Care Gaps for Women: Attributions to Sex Differences in Cardiovascular Medicine

Leslee J. Shaw, Carl J. Pepine, Joe Xie, Puja K. Mehta, Alanna A. Morris, Neal W. Dickert, Keith C. Ferdinand, Martha Gulati, Harmony Reynolds, Sharonne N. Hayes, Dipti Itchhaporia, Jennifer H. Mieres, Elizabeth Ofili, Nanette K. Wenger, C. Noel Bairey Merz

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

27 Scopus citations


The present review synthesizes evidence and discusses issues related to health care quality and equity for women, including minority population subgroups. The principle of "sameness" or women and men receiving equitable, high-quality care is a near-term target, but optimal population health cannot be achieved without consideration of the unique, gendered structural determinants of health and the development of unique care pathways optimized for women. The aim of this review is to promote enhanced awareness, develop critical thinking in sex and gender science, and identify strategic pathways to improve the cardiovascular health of women. Delineation of the components of high-quality health care, including a women-specific research agenda, remains a vital part of strategic planning to improve the lives of women at risk for or living with cardiovascular disease.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)373-388
Number of pages16
JournalJournal of the American College of Cardiology
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jul 18 2017



  • disparities
  • health care quality
  • sex differences

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

Cite this

Shaw, L. J., Pepine, C. J., Xie, J., Mehta, P. K., Morris, A. A., Dickert, N. W., Ferdinand, K. C., Gulati, M., Reynolds, H., Hayes, S. N., Itchhaporia, D., Mieres, J. H., Ofili, E., Wenger, N. K., & Bairey Merz, C. N. (2017). Quality and Equitable Health Care Gaps for Women: Attributions to Sex Differences in Cardiovascular Medicine. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 70(3), 373-388. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2017.05.051