Punctured human long bones have been reported at numerous midwestern sites, but none have as large a concentration as Smith Mound Four (21KC3). This northern Minnesota mound was built by the people of the Laurel culture and dates to A.D. 565. Analysis of the bones suggests that they were perforated on the basis of inherited group affiliation for purposes that did not involve marrow extraction and may have related to ideas of spirit release.
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- Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)