Background Cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) are commonly associated with transvenous lead-related thrombi that can cause pulmonary embolism (PE). Methods and results We retrospectively evaluated all patients with transvenous CIED leads implanted at Mayo Clinic Rochester between 1 January 2000, and 25 October 2010. Pulmonary embolism outcomes during follow-up were screened using diagnosis codes and confirmed with imaging study reports. Of 5646 CIED patients (age 67.3 ± 16.3 years, 64% men, mean follow-up 4.69 years) 88 developed PE (1.6%), incidence 3.32 [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.68-4.07] per 1000 person-years [men: 3.04 (95% CI 2.29-3.96) per 1000 person-years; women: 3.81 (95% CI 2.72-5.20) per 1000 person-years]. Other than transvenous CIED lead(s), 84% had another established risk factor for PE such as deep vein thrombosis (28%), recent surgery (27%), malignancy (25%), or prior history of venous thromboembolism (15%). At the time of PE, 22% had been hospitalized for ≥48 h, and 59% had been hospitalized in the preceding 30 days. Pulmonary embolism occurred in 22% despite being on systemic anticoagulation therapy. Out of 88 patients with PE, 45 subsequently died, mortality rate 93 (95% CI 67-123) per 1000 person-years (hazard ratio 2.0, 95% CI 1.5-2.7, P <0.0001). Conclusions Though lead-related thrombus is commonly seen in patients with transvenous CIED leads, clinical PE occurs with a low incidence. It is possible that embolism of lead thrombus is uncommon or emboli are too small to cause consequential pulmonary infarction.
- Andexanet alfa
- Pulmonary embolism
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
- Physiology (medical)