Background: Pseudoprogression (PsP) following radiation therapy (RT) for low grade glioma (LGG, WHO grade I and II), including both photon-based intensity-modulated RT (IMRT) and proton beam therapy (PBT), has been described. However, its incidence has yet to be consolidated. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to pool the current literature and establish the incidence of PsP in these groups to better inform surveillance protocols in the future. Methods: Searches of 4 electronic databases from inception to April 2019 were conducted following PRISMA guidelines. Articles were screened against pre-specified criteria. The incidence of outcomes was then extracted and pooled by random-effects meta-analysis of proportions. Results: A total of 5 pediatric and 4 adult cohort studies describing 517 and 424 LGG subjects respectively satisfied all selection criteria. The estimated incidences of PsP in pediatric subjects following IMRT and PBT were 33% (95% CI, 20–47%) and 34% (95% CI, 23–45%) respectively, with no difference between modalities. The estimated incidences of PsP in adult subjects following IMRT and PBT were 18% (95% CI, 12–25%) and 30% (95% CI, 21–39%) respectively, with PsP significantly less common following IMRT than PBT (P-heterogeneity = 0.04). Median time from radiation initiation to first detection of PsP ranged from 6 to 12 months across all modalities and age groups. Conclusions: The incidence of PsP following both IMRT and PBT in the management of pediatric and adult LGG is not negligible, and should therefore be recognized as a pertinent sequala within the first year at least following treatment. However, a lack of accountability in the current literature for the differences in PsP interpretation, radiation modality, radiobiology and molecular biology of LGGs precludes any firm surveillance recommendations at this time.
- Low-grade glioma
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging