Proton pump inhibitor therapy use does not predispose to small intestinal bacterial overgrowth

Shiva K. Ratuapli, Taylor G. Ellington, Mary Teresa O'Neill, Sarah B. Umar, Lucinda A. Harris, Amy E. Foxx-Orenstein, George E. Burdick, John K. DiBaise, Brian E. Lacy, Michael D. Crowell

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

OBJECTIVES: Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) occurs due to alteration of the microbiota within the upper gastrointestinal tract. Proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy has been suggested as a risk factor for SIBO; however, the published reports have yielded conflicting results on the association between PPI therapy and risk of developing SIBO. The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of SIBO as measured by glucose hydrogen breath testing (GHBT) in patients on PPI therapy compared with those not on PPI therapy. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was completed for all patients who underwent GHBT testing from 2004 to 2010. Breath samples for hydrogen (H 2) and methane (CH 4) were collected before and every 20 min for 120 min following ingestion of a 50-g oral glucose load. We used the following criteria to define a positive GHBT (a) increase in H 2<20 parts per million (p.p.m.) over baseline, (b) sustained rise H 210 p.p.m. over baseline, (c) CH 4<15 p.p.m. over baseline, and (d) either rise H 2<20 p.p.m. over baseline or CH 4<15 p.p.m. RESULTS: A total of 1,191 patients (70% female) were included, of whom 566 (48%) were on PPI therapy. GHBT positivity did not differ significantly between PPI users and nonusers by any of the diagnostic criteria used and PPI use was not significantly associated with GHBT positivity using any of these criteria. GHBT positivity was associated with older age (odds ratio (OR) 1.03, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01-1.04) and antidiarrheal use (OR 1.99, 95% CI 1.15-3.44) using H 2<20, older age (OR 1.01, 95% CI 1.00-1.02) and diarrhea (OR 1.53, 95% CI 1.13-2.09) using H 2<10, and older age (OR 1.01, 95% CI 1.00-1.02) using either H 2<20 or CH 4<15. PPI use was not significantly associated with GHBT positivity using any of these criteria. CONCLUSIONS: In this large, adequately powered equivalence study, PPI use was not found to be significantly associated with the presence of SIBO as determined by the GHBT.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)730-735
Number of pages6
JournalAmerican Journal of Gastroenterology
Volume107
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - May 2012

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Proton Pump Inhibitors
Hydrogen
Glucose
Odds Ratio
Confidence Intervals
Therapeutics
Antidiarrheals
Upper Gastrointestinal Tract
Microbiota
Methane
Diarrhea
Eating

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Gastroenterology
  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

Ratuapli, S. K., Ellington, T. G., O'Neill, M. T., Umar, S. B., Harris, L. A., Foxx-Orenstein, A. E., ... Crowell, M. D. (2012). Proton pump inhibitor therapy use does not predispose to small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. American Journal of Gastroenterology, 107(5), 730-735. https://doi.org/10.1038/ajg.2012.4

Proton pump inhibitor therapy use does not predispose to small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. / Ratuapli, Shiva K.; Ellington, Taylor G.; O'Neill, Mary Teresa; Umar, Sarah B.; Harris, Lucinda A.; Foxx-Orenstein, Amy E.; Burdick, George E.; DiBaise, John K.; Lacy, Brian E.; Crowell, Michael D.

In: American Journal of Gastroenterology, Vol. 107, No. 5, 05.2012, p. 730-735.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Ratuapli, SK, Ellington, TG, O'Neill, MT, Umar, SB, Harris, LA, Foxx-Orenstein, AE, Burdick, GE, DiBaise, JK, Lacy, BE & Crowell, MD 2012, 'Proton pump inhibitor therapy use does not predispose to small intestinal bacterial overgrowth', American Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 107, no. 5, pp. 730-735. https://doi.org/10.1038/ajg.2012.4
Ratuapli SK, Ellington TG, O'Neill MT, Umar SB, Harris LA, Foxx-Orenstein AE et al. Proton pump inhibitor therapy use does not predispose to small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. American Journal of Gastroenterology. 2012 May;107(5):730-735. https://doi.org/10.1038/ajg.2012.4
Ratuapli, Shiva K. ; Ellington, Taylor G. ; O'Neill, Mary Teresa ; Umar, Sarah B. ; Harris, Lucinda A. ; Foxx-Orenstein, Amy E. ; Burdick, George E. ; DiBaise, John K. ; Lacy, Brian E. ; Crowell, Michael D. / Proton pump inhibitor therapy use does not predispose to small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. In: American Journal of Gastroenterology. 2012 ; Vol. 107, No. 5. pp. 730-735.
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abstract = "OBJECTIVES: Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) occurs due to alteration of the microbiota within the upper gastrointestinal tract. Proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy has been suggested as a risk factor for SIBO; however, the published reports have yielded conflicting results on the association between PPI therapy and risk of developing SIBO. The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of SIBO as measured by glucose hydrogen breath testing (GHBT) in patients on PPI therapy compared with those not on PPI therapy. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was completed for all patients who underwent GHBT testing from 2004 to 2010. Breath samples for hydrogen (H 2) and methane (CH 4) were collected before and every 20 min for 120 min following ingestion of a 50-g oral glucose load. We used the following criteria to define a positive GHBT (a) increase in H 2<20 parts per million (p.p.m.) over baseline, (b) sustained rise H 210 p.p.m. over baseline, (c) CH 4<15 p.p.m. over baseline, and (d) either rise H 2<20 p.p.m. over baseline or CH 4<15 p.p.m. RESULTS: A total of 1,191 patients (70{\%} female) were included, of whom 566 (48{\%}) were on PPI therapy. GHBT positivity did not differ significantly between PPI users and nonusers by any of the diagnostic criteria used and PPI use was not significantly associated with GHBT positivity using any of these criteria. GHBT positivity was associated with older age (odds ratio (OR) 1.03, 95{\%} confidence interval (CI) 1.01-1.04) and antidiarrheal use (OR 1.99, 95{\%} CI 1.15-3.44) using H 2<20, older age (OR 1.01, 95{\%} CI 1.00-1.02) and diarrhea (OR 1.53, 95{\%} CI 1.13-2.09) using H 2<10, and older age (OR 1.01, 95{\%} CI 1.00-1.02) using either H 2<20 or CH 4<15. PPI use was not significantly associated with GHBT positivity using any of these criteria. CONCLUSIONS: In this large, adequately powered equivalence study, PPI use was not found to be significantly associated with the presence of SIBO as determined by the GHBT.",
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AU - Ratuapli, Shiva K.

AU - Ellington, Taylor G.

AU - O'Neill, Mary Teresa

AU - Umar, Sarah B.

AU - Harris, Lucinda A.

AU - Foxx-Orenstein, Amy E.

AU - Burdick, George E.

AU - DiBaise, John K.

AU - Lacy, Brian E.

AU - Crowell, Michael D.

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N2 - OBJECTIVES: Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) occurs due to alteration of the microbiota within the upper gastrointestinal tract. Proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy has been suggested as a risk factor for SIBO; however, the published reports have yielded conflicting results on the association between PPI therapy and risk of developing SIBO. The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of SIBO as measured by glucose hydrogen breath testing (GHBT) in patients on PPI therapy compared with those not on PPI therapy. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was completed for all patients who underwent GHBT testing from 2004 to 2010. Breath samples for hydrogen (H 2) and methane (CH 4) were collected before and every 20 min for 120 min following ingestion of a 50-g oral glucose load. We used the following criteria to define a positive GHBT (a) increase in H 2<20 parts per million (p.p.m.) over baseline, (b) sustained rise H 210 p.p.m. over baseline, (c) CH 4<15 p.p.m. over baseline, and (d) either rise H 2<20 p.p.m. over baseline or CH 4<15 p.p.m. RESULTS: A total of 1,191 patients (70% female) were included, of whom 566 (48%) were on PPI therapy. GHBT positivity did not differ significantly between PPI users and nonusers by any of the diagnostic criteria used and PPI use was not significantly associated with GHBT positivity using any of these criteria. GHBT positivity was associated with older age (odds ratio (OR) 1.03, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01-1.04) and antidiarrheal use (OR 1.99, 95% CI 1.15-3.44) using H 2<20, older age (OR 1.01, 95% CI 1.00-1.02) and diarrhea (OR 1.53, 95% CI 1.13-2.09) using H 2<10, and older age (OR 1.01, 95% CI 1.00-1.02) using either H 2<20 or CH 4<15. PPI use was not significantly associated with GHBT positivity using any of these criteria. CONCLUSIONS: In this large, adequately powered equivalence study, PPI use was not found to be significantly associated with the presence of SIBO as determined by the GHBT.

AB - OBJECTIVES: Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) occurs due to alteration of the microbiota within the upper gastrointestinal tract. Proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy has been suggested as a risk factor for SIBO; however, the published reports have yielded conflicting results on the association between PPI therapy and risk of developing SIBO. The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of SIBO as measured by glucose hydrogen breath testing (GHBT) in patients on PPI therapy compared with those not on PPI therapy. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was completed for all patients who underwent GHBT testing from 2004 to 2010. Breath samples for hydrogen (H 2) and methane (CH 4) were collected before and every 20 min for 120 min following ingestion of a 50-g oral glucose load. We used the following criteria to define a positive GHBT (a) increase in H 2<20 parts per million (p.p.m.) over baseline, (b) sustained rise H 210 p.p.m. over baseline, (c) CH 4<15 p.p.m. over baseline, and (d) either rise H 2<20 p.p.m. over baseline or CH 4<15 p.p.m. RESULTS: A total of 1,191 patients (70% female) were included, of whom 566 (48%) were on PPI therapy. GHBT positivity did not differ significantly between PPI users and nonusers by any of the diagnostic criteria used and PPI use was not significantly associated with GHBT positivity using any of these criteria. GHBT positivity was associated with older age (odds ratio (OR) 1.03, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01-1.04) and antidiarrheal use (OR 1.99, 95% CI 1.15-3.44) using H 2<20, older age (OR 1.01, 95% CI 1.00-1.02) and diarrhea (OR 1.53, 95% CI 1.13-2.09) using H 2<10, and older age (OR 1.01, 95% CI 1.00-1.02) using either H 2<20 or CH 4<15. PPI use was not significantly associated with GHBT positivity using any of these criteria. CONCLUSIONS: In this large, adequately powered equivalence study, PPI use was not found to be significantly associated with the presence of SIBO as determined by the GHBT.

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