Usage of 'typical' but not 'atypical' antipsychotic drugs is associated with severe side effects involving extrapyramidal tract (EPT). Single dose of haloperidol caused selective inhibition of complex I in frontal cortex, striatum and midbrain (41 and 26%, respectively) which was abolished by pretreatment of mice with thiol antioxidants, α-lipoic acid and glutathione isopropyl ester, and reversed, in vitro, by disulfide reductant, dithiothreitol. Prolonged administration of haloperidol to mice resulted in complex I loss in frontal cortex, hippocampus, striatum and midbrain, while chronic dosing with clozapine affected only hippocampus and frontal cortex. Risperidone caused complex I loss in frontal cortex, hippocampus and striatum but not in midbrain from which extrapyramidal tract emanates. Inhibition of the electron transport chain component, complex I by haloperidol is mediated through oxidation of essential thiol groups to disulfides, in vivo. Further, loss of complex I in extrapyramidal brain regions by anti-psychotics correlated with their known propensity to generate side-effects involving extra-pyramidal tract.
- Complex I
- Oxidative stress
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience
- Cell Biology