Prostate cryotherapy monitoring using vibroacoustography: Preliminary results of an ex vivo study and technical feasibility

Farid G. Mitri, Brian J. Davis, Azra Alizad, James F. Greenleaf, Torrence M. Wilson, Lance A. Mynderse, Mostafa Fatemi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

39 Scopus citations


The objective of this research is to prospectively evaluate the feasibility of vibroacoustography (VA) imaging in monitoring prostate cryotherapy in an ex vivo model. Baseline scanning of an excised human prostate is accomplished by a VA system apparatus in a tank of degassed water. Alcohol and dry ice mixture are used to freeze two prostate tissue samples. The frozen prostates are subsequently placed within the water tank at 27°C and rescanned. VA images were acquired at prescribed time intervals to characterize the acoustic properties of the partially frozen tissue. The frozen prostate tissue appears in the images as hypoemitting signal. Once the tissue thaws, previously frozen regions show coarser texture than prior to freezing. The margin of the frozen tissue is delineated with a well-defined rim. The thawed cryolesions show a different contrast compared with normal unfrozen prostate. In conclusion, this pilot study shows that VA produces clear images of a frozen prostate at different temperature stages. The frozen tissue appears as a uniform region with well-defined borders that are readily identified. These characteristic images should allow safer and more efficient application of prostatic cryosurgery. These results provide substantial motivation to further investigate VA as a potential modality to monitor prostate cryotherapy intraoperatively.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2584-2592
Number of pages9
JournalIEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 2008


  • Cryosurgery
  • Prostate cancer
  • Ultrasound
  • Vibroacoustography (VA)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biomedical Engineering


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