Proposal for Modification of Cahan's Criteria Utilizing Molecular Genetic Analyses for Cases without Baseline Histopathology: A Unique Method Applicable to Primary Radiosurgery

Aaron E. Rusheen, James B. Smadbeck, Lisa A. Schimmenti, Eric W. Klee, Michael J. Link, George Vasmatzis, Matthew L. Carlson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background Cahan's criteria have been utilized since 1948 to establish causality between prior radiation treatment and the development of secondary malignancy. One major criterion specifies that histological and radiographic evidence collected before and after radiation treatment must confirm separate tumor types; however, pretreatment biopsy is rarely obtained prior to radiosurgery for vestibular schwannoma and many other skull base and cranial lesions. Therefore, in these cases Cahan's criteria cannot be validly applied. Objective This article proposes an update to Cahan's criteria using modern molecular genetic analysis for cases lacking baseline histopathology. Methods Mate-pair sequencing and whole exome sequencing of a cerebellopontine angle undifferentiated high-grade pleomorphic sarcoma (UHGPS) that developed after stereotactic radiosurgery of a presumed benign vestibular schwannoma. Results Mate-pair sequencing and whole exome sequencing of the sarcoma revealed complex chromosomal aberrations. Notably, the tumor contained a deletion in the NF2 gene at 22q12 and an in-frame deletion on exon 5 of the remaining copy of NF2. Biallelic events impacting NF2 are atypical for UHGPS but are characteristic for vestibular schwannoma. These findings help support the conclusion that the UHGPS arose from a benign vestibular schwannoma all along. Conclusions Next-generation sequencing can be successfully applied to a radiation-induced sarcoma when both the original and malignant tumors harbor separate signature genetic markers. As our understanding of the genetic profile of various tumors expand, we believe that next-generation sequencing and other genomic tools will play an increasingly important role in establishing causality between radiation and the development of secondary malignancy.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)10-17
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Neurological Surgery, Part B: Skull Base
Volume80
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - May 31 2018

Keywords

  • Cahan's criteria
  • Gamma-Knife
  • radiation-induced malignancy
  • radiosurgery
  • sarcoma
  • vestibular schwannoma

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology

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