Context: Maternally inherited STX16 deletions that cause loss of methylation at GNAS exon A/B and thereby reduce Gsα expression are the most frequent cause of autosomal dominant pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ib (AD-PHP1B). Early identification of these disease-causing variants in the children of affected and unaffected female carriers would prompt treatment with calcium and calcitriol once parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels increase, thereby preventing hypocalcemia and associated complications. Objective: This study aimed to determine when PTH and calcium abnormalities develop after birth if a STX16 deletion is inherited maternally. Methods: Forty-four children of affected (n = 7) or unaffected (n = 7) females with a STX16 deletion were investigated for the presence of these variants. If a deletion was identified, measurement of PTH, calcium, phosphate, and thyrotropin (TSH) was advised. Results: The STX16 deletion that causes AD-PHP1B was identified in 25 children. Pretreatment laboratory results were available for 19 of those cases. Elevated PTH levels were detected by 2 years of age, and these were progressively higher if laboratory testing was first performed after establishing the genetic defect later in life. Total serum calcium levels remained within normal limits until about 5 years of age. TSH levels showed no consistent rise over time. Conclusion: Establishing whether a STX16 deletion is inherited from a female carrier of a disease-causing variant rapidly establishes the diagnosis of AD-PHP1B. Several years before overt hypocalcemia developed, PTH levels increased, thereby establishing the onset of PTH resistance. Our findings provide diagnostic guidance and when treatment with calcium and calcitriol should be considered in order to prevent hypocalcemia and associated sequelae.
- parent-specific GNAS methylation
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
- Clinical Biochemistry
- Biochemistry, medical