The molecular events that modulate the progression of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance of the immunoglobulin M class (IgM-MGUS) to Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia (WM) are mostly unknown. We implemented comparative proteomics and metabolomics analyses on patient serum samples to identify differentially expressed molecules crucial to the progression from IgM-MGUS to WM. Our data identified altered lipid metabolism as a discriminating factor between MGUS, WM, and matched normal controls. Levels of many fatty acids, including polyunsaturated fatty acids and dicarboxylic acids, were significantly downregulated in WM sera when compared to MGUS. These reductions were associated with diminished 15-LOX and PPAR protein expression and increased 5-LOX and GPX4 expression in WM versus MGUS patients’ samples. Furthermore, WM serum samples showed increased lipid peroxidation compared to MGUS. Treatment with IL-6 or TNFα, upstream regulators of differentially expressed proteins between MGUS and WM, increased lipid absorption and lipid peroxidation in WM cell lines. Knock-down of 15-LOX expression increased WM cell survival, an effect accompanied by increased 5-LOX and GPX4 expression. In summary, our data show that reduced fatty acid and lipid metabolite levels in the serum of the WM patients are associated with increased lipid peroxidation and that downregulation of 15-LOX increases the survival of WM cells. These data are highly significant in identifying the biomarkers of disease progression and designing targeted therapeutic intervention.
- Glutathione peroxidase
- Lipid metabolism
- Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance of the immunoglobulin M class (IgM-MGUS)
- Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Organic Chemistry
- Clinical Biochemistry