Background: Hepatorenal dysfunction is a risk factor for mortality in patients with chronic tricuspid regurgitation due to acquired heart disease. Ebstein anomaly is the most common cause of primary tricuspid regurgitation in adults with congenital heart disease, but the prevalence and prognostic implications of hepatorenal dysfunction are unknown in this population. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the risk factors and prognostic implications of hepatorenal dysfunction, as measured primarily by the use of model for end-stage liver disease excluding international normalized ratio (MELD-XI score), as well as looking at other associated factors. Methods: This was a retrospective study of adults with Ebstein anomaly who received care at Mayo Clinic from 2003 to 2018. Results: Of 692 patients, the median MELD-XI score was 10.2 (interquartile range: 9.4 to 13.3); 53 (8%) died and 3 (0.4%) underwent heart transplant. MELD-XI was an independent predictor of death/transplant (hazard ratio: 1.32; 95% confidence interval: 1.11 to 2.06; p < 0.001). In the subset of patients with serial MELD-XI scores (n = 416), temporal change in MELD-XI score (ΔMELD-XI) was also a predictor of death/transplant. In the subset of patients who underwent tricuspid valve surgery (n = 344), a post-operative improvement in MELD-XI score (ΔMELD-XI) was associated with improved long-term survival. Impaired right atrial (RA) reservoir strain and elevated estimated RA pressure were associated with worse baseline MELD-XI and ΔMELD-XI scores. Conclusions: Hepatorenal dysfunction is a predictor of mortality in Ebstein anomaly, and RA dysfunction and hypertension are hemodynamic biomarkers that can identify patients at risk for deterioration in hepatorenal function and mortality. These data highlight the prognostic importance of noncardiac organ-system dysfunction, and provide complementary clinical risk stratification metrics for management of these patients.
- Ebstein anomaly
- hepatorenal dysfunction
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine