Fluorescence in situ hybridization evaluation is essential for initial risk stratification in multiple myeloma. While the presence of specific cytogenetic high-risk abnormalities (HRA) is known to confer a poor prognosis, less is known about the cumulative effect of multiple HRA. We studied 1181 patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma who received novel agents as first-line therapy. High-risk abnormalities were defined as t(4;14), t(14;16), t(14;20) and del(17p). There were 884 patients (75%) without any HRA and 297 patients (25%) with HRA, including 262 (22%) with one HRA and 35 (3%) with two HRA. The presence of one HRA (versus zero, hazard ratio (HR) 1.65, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.32-2.05, p<0.001) and the presence of two HRA (versus zero, HR 3.15, 95% CI 2.00-4.96, p<0.001) were of prognostic significance after adjusting for other prognostic factors. Abnormalities of chromosome 13 were of prognostic significance independent of the established HRA: Monosomy 13 (HR 1.27, 95% CI 1.04-1.56, P=0.022) and del(13q) (HR 0.48, 95% CI 0.28-0.81, P=0.006) with opposite effects. Patients with HRA experienced worse overall survival suggesting a cumulative adverse effect of multiple HRA. Abnormalities of chromosome 13 were of prognostic significance after adjusting for other prognostic factors.
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