Background The impact of prognostic factors in T1G3 non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (BCa) patients is critical for proper treatment decision making. Objective To assess prognostic factors in patients who received bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) as initial intravesical treatment of T1G3 tumors and to identify a subgroup of high-risk patients who should be considered for more aggressive treatment. Design, setting, and participants Individual patient data were collected for 2451 T1G3 patients from 23 centers who received BCG between 1990 and 2011. Outcome measurements and statistical analysis Using Cox multivariable regression, the prognostic importance of several clinical variables was assessed for time to recurrence, progression, BCa-specific survival, and overall survival (OS). Results and limitations With a median follow-up of 5.2 yr, 465 patients (19%) progressed, 509 (21%) underwent cystectomy, and 221 (9%) died because of BCa. In multivariable analyses, the most important prognostic factors for progression were age, tumor size, and concomitant carcinoma in situ (CIS); the most important prognostic factors for BCa-specific survival and OS were age and tumor size. Patients were divided into four risk groups for progression according to the number of adverse factors among age ≥70 yr, size ≥3 cm, and presence of CIS. Progression rates at 10 yr ranged from 17% to 52%. BCa-specific death rates at 10 yr were 32% in patients ≥70 yr with tumor size ≥3 cm and 13% otherwise. Conclusions T1G3 patients ≥70 yr with tumors ≥3 cm and concomitant CIS should be treated more aggressively because of the high risk of progression. Patient summary Although the majority of T1G3 patients can be safely treated with intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guérin, there is a subgroup of T1G3 patients with age ≥70 yr, tumor size ≥3 cm, and concomitant CIS who have a high risk of progression and thus require aggressive treatment.
- Non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer
- Prognostic factors
ASJC Scopus subject areas