HIV infection may be modified by CD8+ T cells by the production of nonlytic antiviral factors. To determine subpopulations that mediate nonlytic, antiviral activity, we examined the production of β chemokines and of CD8 antiviral factor (CAF) by different subsets, using CD8+ cells derived from 24 HIV-1-infected and 25 uninfected individuals. Subjects with CD8+ cell counts greater than 200/μl produced increased levels of MIP-1α by CD8+CD28+, CD8+CD38-, and CD8+HLA-DR+ subsets as compared with uninfected controls. CD8+CD38- cells produced higher levels of MIP-1β and RANTES. CAF production was increased by CD8+CD38+ and CD8+HLA-DR+ cells of HIV-infected individuals as compared with uninfected controls. Chemokine production was increased by cells that do not express activation markers, whereas CAF activity was increased by cells expressing CD38 or HLA-DR. These findings shed light on CD8+ T cell noncytotoxic antiviral factor production during HIV infection.
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