Pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory T cells in giant cell arteritis

Ryu Watanabe, Ebru Hosgur, Hui Zhang, Zhenke Wen, Gerald Berry, Jörg J. Goronzy, Cornelia M. Weyand

Research output: Contribution to journalShort surveypeer-review

24 Scopus citations

Abstract

Giant cell arteritis is an autoimmune disease defined by explicit tissue tropism to the walls of medium and large arteries. Pathognomic inflammatory lesions are granulomatous in nature, emphasizing the functional role of CD4 T cells and macrophages. Evidence for a pathogenic role of antibodies and immune complexes is missing. Analysis of T cell populations in giant cell arteritis, both in the tissue lesions and in the circulation, has supported a model of broad, polyclonal T cell activation, involving an array of functional T cell lineages. The signature of T cell cytokines produced by vasculitic lesions is typically multifunctional, including IL-2, IFN-γ, IL-17, IL-21, and GM-CSF, supportive for a general defect in T cell regulation. Recent data describing the lack of a lymph node-based population of anti-inflammatory T cells in giant cell arteritis patients offers a fresh look at the immunopathology of this vasculitis. Due to defective CD8+NOX2+ regulatory T cells, giant cell arteritis patients appear unable to curtail clonal expansion within the CD4 T cell compartment, resulting in widespread CD4 T cell hyperimmunity. Why unopposed expansion of committed CD4 effector T cells would lead to invasion of the walls of medium and large arteries needs to be explored in further investigations.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)421-426
Number of pages6
JournalJoint Bone Spine
Volume84
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 2017

Keywords

  • Anti-inflammatory T cells
  • CD8 Treg cells
  • Giant cell arteritis
  • Macrophage
  • Pro-inflammatory T cells

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Rheumatology

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