Background & Aims: Patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) commonly undergo ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) for medically-refractory ulcerative colitis (UC) or colorectal dysplasia. Pouchitis develops more frequently in patients with PSC, potentially leading to increased morbidity. We aimed to assess clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes for pouchitis in patients with PSC compared to a matched, non-PSC cohort. Methods: All patients with PSC who underwent IPAA and were diagnosed with pouchitis (PSC-pouchitis) were identified. A matched cohort composed of non-PSC patients who underwent IPAA for UC and subsequently developed pouchitis (UC-pouchitis) was developed. Relevant demographic, clinical, endoscopic, histologic, and treatment data were collected and compared between groups. Results: Of those with PSC-pouchitis (n=182), 53.9% and 46.1% underwent IPAA for medically-refractory disease and dysplasia, respectively, compared to 88.7% and 11.3% in the UC-pouchitis group (P < .001). Patients with PSC-pouchitis were more likely to develop chronic pouchitis (68.1% vs 34.1%; P < .001), have moderate-to-severe pouch inflammation (54.9% vs 32.4%; P < .001), and prepouch ileitis (34.1% vs 11.5%; P < .001) compared to UC-pouchitis. Of those with PSC-pouchitis, 50.6% and 17.6% developed chronic antibiotic-dependent or antibiotic-refractory pouchitis, respectively, compared to 25.8% and 7.7% with UC-pouchitis. There was no difference in treatment response between the two groups with use of thiopurines, anti-tumor necrosis factor agents, and newer biologics. Conclusions: PSC-associated pouchitis presents with a unique clinical phenotype, characterized by increased risk of chronic pouchitis, moderate-to-severe pouch inflammation, prepouch ileitis, and less response to conventional antimicrobial therapy.
- Ileal Pouch-Anal Anastomosis
- Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis
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