Primary eosinophilic disorders include hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES); chronic eosinophilic leukemia, not otherwise categorized (CEL-NOC); platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR)-rearranged myeloid neoplasms; and other myeloid malignancies associated with prominent blood eosinophilia. According to the World Health Organization consensus criteria, the diagnosis of HES requires the absence of clonal cytogenetic or molecular markers of an underlying myeloid or lymphoid neoplasm. CEL-NOC constitutes an HES-like phenotype associated with an abnormal karyotype or excess blasts in blood (> 2%) or bone marrow (> 5%). HES and CEL-NOC are considered distinct from molecularly defined eosinophilic disorders, such as those associated with activating mutations of PDGFR (PDGFRA and PDGFRB) and fibroblast growth factor receptor-1. This is an important distinction because PDGFR-mutated but not other eosinophilic neoplasms are effectively treated with imatinib. Current management in HES includes observation only for asymptomatic patients with no evidence of organ damage, systemic corticosteroid therapy for acute control of symptoms, and interferon-alfa-2a or hydroxyurea as steroid-sparing agents. In patients with HES who are refractory to usual therapy and have life-threatening disease complications, the use of investigational drugs such as alemtuzumab or mepolizumab might be considered, but data on long-term efficacy and safety are limited.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research