There is increasing awareness of sleep-disordered breathing, which may manifest as obstructive sleep apnea, central sleep apnea (CSA), or a mixture of the two. Obstructive sleep apnea and CSA are strongly associated with heart failure (HF) and risk factors for developing HF. CSA may be considered a manifestation of the pathophysiology of HF; hence, approaches to optimize pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic treatment of HF should help to ameliorate CSA. However, if CSA also contributes to HF progression, CSA may represent a potential therapeutic target. There was hope that CSA prevalence would decline with better HF therapies. However, contemporary studies of HF patients on optimal medical therapy have shown that CSA prevalence remains 30% to 40%. Treating CSA poses significant challenges. Presently, the role of routine continuous positive airway pressure remains unclear, although newer ventilatory strategies may prove effective. Currently, CSA treatment involves standard optimal HF therapies, although growing evidence indicates that newer ventilation modes and cardiac resynchronization therapy may prove to be useful.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Emergency Medicine
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
- Physiology (medical)