Prevalence and Correlates of Hypersomnolence Symptoms in U.S. Teens

Bhanu Prakash Kolla, Jian Ping He, Meghna Mansukhani, Suresh Kotagal, Mark A Frye, Kathleen R. Merikangas

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

Objective: Recent attention to pervasive sleep deficits in U.S. adolescents has focused on sleep patterns and insomnia, but there are limited data on the prevalence and correlates of hypersomnolence symptoms. Method: The sample included 6,483 adolescents 13 to 18 years of age who were interviewed directly and had parent reports in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication–Adolescent Supplement (NCS-A), a nationally representative sample of U.S. youth. Information on sleep patterns/symptoms that were collected in the interview was used to determine the population prevalence of DSM-5 criterion A–defined hypersomnolence and component symptoms. Logistic regression analyses were used to examine associations between sleepiness and sub-symptoms of hypersomnolence with weekday/weekend bedtime, sleep duration, mental disorders, and psychotropic medication use. Results: Of the sample, 41.5% reported feeling sleepy during the daytime and 11.7% met criteria for hypersomnolence. The prevalence of hypersomnolence varied depending on age (p <.001) and was more common in adolescent girls (odds ratio [OR] 1.40, 95% CI 1.09–1.78). Excessive sleepiness and hypersomnolence symptoms were associated with shorter sleep duration and delayed bedtimes on weekdays and weekends Hypersomnolence was significantly associated with insomnia (OR 2.45, 95% CI 1.87–3.21) and mental disorders (OR 1.99, 95% CI 1.42–2.77). After accounting for insomnia, hypersomnolence was no longer associated with use of psychotropic medication (OR 1.61, 95% CI 0.97–2.66). Conclusion: Of adolescents with adequate sleep duration, 11.7% still reported symptoms of hypersomnolence. The strong association between hypersomnolence and insomnia suggests that sleep disorders in adolescents can fluctuate between over- and under-sleeping. Potential mechanisms underpinning the strong associations between sleep disturbances and mental disorders should be further pursued and could provide insight into prevention efforts.

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Disorders of Excessive Somnolence
Sleep
Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders
Odds Ratio
Mental Disorders
Comorbidity
Emotions
Logistic Models
Regression Analysis
Interviews

Keywords

  • hypersomnia
  • insomnia
  • sleep disturbance
  • sleepiness

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health

Cite this

Prevalence and Correlates of Hypersomnolence Symptoms in U.S. Teens. / Kolla, Bhanu Prakash; He, Jian Ping; Mansukhani, Meghna; Kotagal, Suresh; Frye, Mark A; Merikangas, Kathleen R.

In: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 01.01.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "Objective: Recent attention to pervasive sleep deficits in U.S. adolescents has focused on sleep patterns and insomnia, but there are limited data on the prevalence and correlates of hypersomnolence symptoms. Method: The sample included 6,483 adolescents 13 to 18 years of age who were interviewed directly and had parent reports in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication–Adolescent Supplement (NCS-A), a nationally representative sample of U.S. youth. Information on sleep patterns/symptoms that were collected in the interview was used to determine the population prevalence of DSM-5 criterion A–defined hypersomnolence and component symptoms. Logistic regression analyses were used to examine associations between sleepiness and sub-symptoms of hypersomnolence with weekday/weekend bedtime, sleep duration, mental disorders, and psychotropic medication use. Results: Of the sample, 41.5{\%} reported feeling sleepy during the daytime and 11.7{\%} met criteria for hypersomnolence. The prevalence of hypersomnolence varied depending on age (p <.001) and was more common in adolescent girls (odds ratio [OR] 1.40, 95{\%} CI 1.09–1.78). Excessive sleepiness and hypersomnolence symptoms were associated with shorter sleep duration and delayed bedtimes on weekdays and weekends Hypersomnolence was significantly associated with insomnia (OR 2.45, 95{\%} CI 1.87–3.21) and mental disorders (OR 1.99, 95{\%} CI 1.42–2.77). After accounting for insomnia, hypersomnolence was no longer associated with use of psychotropic medication (OR 1.61, 95{\%} CI 0.97–2.66). Conclusion: Of adolescents with adequate sleep duration, 11.7{\%} still reported symptoms of hypersomnolence. The strong association between hypersomnolence and insomnia suggests that sleep disorders in adolescents can fluctuate between over- and under-sleeping. Potential mechanisms underpinning the strong associations between sleep disturbances and mental disorders should be further pursued and could provide insight into prevention efforts.",
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