BACKGROUND: Two-stage subpectoral implant-based breast reconstruction is the most common method for breast reconstruction. Recent advances in surgical techniques and technology have made prepectoral implant-based breast reconstruction feasible. There are limited data on outcomes after prepectoral implant-based breast reconstruction and postmastectomy radiation therapy. METHODS: A retrospective review of consecutive patients undergoing immediate two-stage prepectoral implant-based breast reconstruction with postmastectomy radiation therapy was performed. Outcomes of irradiated breasts were compared with nonirradiated breasts in bilateral cases. RESULTS: Ninety-three cases of prepectoral implant-based breast reconstruction in 54 women who underwent immediate two-stage reconstruction (39 bilateral and 15 unilateral) and unilateral postmastectomy radiation therapy were identified. Mean follow-up was 19 months from mastectomy and tissue expander reconstruction and 9 months from implant placement. Crude complication rates in irradiated versus nonirradiated sides were as follows: surgical-site infection, 18.5 percent versus 7.7 percent; seroma, 5.6 percent versus 5.1 percent; mastectomy skin flap necrosis, 1.9 percent versus 2.6 percent; wound dehiscence, 1.9 percent versus 7.7 percent; capsular contracture, 1.9 percent versus 0 percent; hematoma, 1.9 percent versus 2.6 percent; and extrusion, 1.9 percent versus 0 percent. On univariate analysis, there were no risk factors associated with any complication, including radiation therapy, surgical-site infection, unplanned readmissions, and unplanned return to the operating room. To date, reconstruction has been completed in 96 percent of patients, with successful implant-based breast reconstruction in 81 breasts (45 irradiated breasts and 36 nonirradiated breasts). CONCLUSIONS: Early data of prepectoral implant-based breast reconstruction in patients with postmastectomy radiation therapy show promising results. Postmastectomy radiation therapy should not be an absolute contraindication to prepectoral implant-based breast reconstruction. CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic, IV.
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