Preoperative correlation of intraoperative cortical mapping with magnetic resonance imaging landmarks to predict localization of the Broca area

Alfredo Quiñones-Hinojosa, Steven G. Ojemann, Nader Sanai, William P. Dillon, Mitchel S. Berger

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

100 Scopus citations

Abstract

Object. Broca identified the posterior third of the inferior frontal gyrus as a locus essential for the production of fluent speech. The authors have conducted this retrospective analysis in an attempt to find readily identifiable landmarks on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging that correspond to intraoperative cortical stimulation-induced speech arrest. These landmarks demonstrate novel structural-functional relationships that can be used preoperatively to predict the location of the Broca area. Methods. Using a neuronavigation system, sites where stimulation produced speech arrest (Broca area) were recorded in a consecutive series of patients undergoing awake tumor resections in the perisylvian territory of the dominant hemisphere. The authors reviewed 33 consecutive patients by projecting the MR imaging data sets and marking the site where the Broca area was identified. Sulcus topography was analyzed with respect to this site by scrolling into neighboring planes and classifying the frontal operculum into one of the four schemes of sulcus variability described by Ebeling, et al. The following categories of frontal opercula were found: 18 (69%) of 26 were Type I, eight (31%) of 26 were Type III, and seven cases eluded classification because of sulcal effacement. For patients with Type I anatomy, the Broca area was adjacent to, and distributed evenly around, the inferior precentral sulcus (IPS). Quantitatively, the site of speech arrest was located a mean of 2.4 ± 0.25 cm from the anteroinferior aspect of the pars opercularis, where it abuts the subarachnoid space surrounding the apex of the pars triangularis. For all patients with Type III anatomy, the Broca area was adjacent to the accessory sulcus that lies immediately posterior to the IPS. In these patients the mean distance from the anterior inferior pars opercularis was 2.3 ± 0.29 cm. The mean distance from the Broca area to the edge of the tumor for the 26 patients with clear sulcal anatomy was 1.29 ± 0.12 cm. Conclusions. The results indicate a correlation between the structure of the frontal operculum as seen on MR imaging and the functional localization of speech arrest in the dominant hemisphere. Additionally, sulcal landmarks that can be used preoperatively to predict the location of the Broca area within the inferior frontal gyrus are described based on the patient population. This information will allow the surgeon to determine if an awake craniotomy is necessary to identify the Broca area when planning a surgical procedure near the dominant frontal operculum.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)311-318
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of neurosurgery
Volume99
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 1 2003

Keywords

  • Broca area
  • Cortical mapping
  • Landmark
  • Magnetic resonance imaging
  • Neuronavigation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Clinical Neurology

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