Pregnancy and birth outcomes after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in pregnancy

Regan N. Theiler, Myra Wick, Ramila Mehta, Amy L. Weaver, Abinash Virk, Melanie Swift

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy is associated with significant maternal morbidity and increased rates of preterm birth. For this reason, COVID-19 vaccination in pregnancy has been endorsed by multiple professional societies, including the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and the Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine, despite the exclusion of pregnant women from initial clinical trials of vaccine safety and efficacy. However, to date, little data exist regarding the outcomes of pregnant patients after COVID-19 vaccination. OBJECTIVE: To assess the safety and efficacy of COVID-19 vaccines in pregnant patients. STUDY DESIGN: A comprehensive vaccine registry was combined with a delivery database for an integrated healthcare system to create a delivery cohort that included vaccinated patients. Maternal sociodemographic data were examined to identify factors associated with COVID-19 vaccination. Pregnancy and birth outcomes were analyzed, including a composite measure of maternal and neonatal pregnancy complications, the Adverse Outcome Index. RESULTS: Of 2002 patients in the delivery cohort, 140 (7.0%) received a COVID-19 vaccine during pregnancy, and 212 (10.6%) experienced a COVID-19 infection during pregnancy. The median gestational age at first vaccination was 32 weeks (range, 13 6/7–40 4/7 weeks), and patients vaccinated during pregnancy were less likely than unvaccinated patients to experience COVID-19 infection before delivery (2/140 [1.4%] vs 210/1862 [11.3%]; P<.001). No maternal COVID-19 infection occurred after the vaccination of pregnant patients. Factors significantly associated with increased likelihood of vaccination in a multivariable logistic regression model included older age, higher level of maternal education, being a nonsmoker, use of infertility treatment for the current pregnancy, and lower gravidity. Compared with unvaccinated patients, no significant difference in the composite adverse outcome (7/140 [5.0%] vs 91/1862 [4.9%]; P=.95) or other maternal or neonatal complications, including thromboembolic events and preterm birth, was observed in vaccinated patients. CONCLUSION: In this birth cohort, vaccinated pregnant women were less likely than unvaccinated pregnant patients to experience COVID-19 infection, and COVID-19 vaccination during pregnancy was not associated with increased pregnancy or delivery complications. The cohort was skewed toward late pregnancy vaccination, and thus, findings may not be generalizable to vaccination during early pregnancy.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number100467
JournalAmerican journal of obstetrics &amp; gynecology MFM
Volume3
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 2021

Keywords

  • Adverse Outcomes Index
  • COVID-19
  • SARS-CoV-2
  • birth
  • gestation
  • immunity
  • mRNA vaccine
  • pregnancy
  • teratogenicity
  • vaccination

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Obstetrics and Gynecology
  • Medicine(all)

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