Objective: To evaluate predictors of urology resident scholarly productivity, pursuit of fellowship, and an academic career using medical student application materials. Methods: We reviewed the Mayo Clinic experience with 49 urology residents who matriculated between 2000 and 2011 and graduated between 2006 and 2016. In 2005, the duration of residency was changed from 6 to 5 years. The number of peer-reviewed original publications before and during residency was obtained via Scopus. Associations of features from the medical student application with number of publications, pursuit of fellowship, and an academic career were evaluated with logistic regression. Results: Among the 49 graduates, 19 (39%) had a peer-reviewed publication before residency. The mean (standard deviation) and median (range) number of publications during residency was 9.0 (9.4) and 6 (1-41), respectively. In a multivariable analysis, the only feature significantly associated with ≥6 publications during residency was a 6 vs 5 year residency program (odds ratio 5.71; P =.018). Twenty five (51%) residents pursued a fellowship, and the only feature significantly associated with this was female gender (odds ratio 7.33, P =.018). Seventeen (35%) residents pursued an academic career, and the only feature from the medical school record that was significantly associated with an academic career was ≥1 publication before residency (odds ratio 3.65; P =.040). Conclusion: A research year during urology residency is significantly associated with scholarly productivity. While women are more likely to pursue fellowships, the only significant predictor of an academic career using medical student application materials was a publication before residency.
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