Background and Goals: Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) recurs in 10% to 15% after fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). We identify predictors, and describe management and outcome of patients with recurrent CDI after FMT in a predominantly outpatient cohort. Methods: A nested case-control study of patients undergoing FMT for recurrent CDI from August 2012 to January 2017 was performed. FMT failure was defined as recurrent diarrhea with positive C. difficile stool test during follow-up (≥2 mo). Controls (patients without FMT failures) were matched to cases 1:1 for sex and timing of FMT±1 month. Results: Overall, 522 patients underwent FMT; 70 [13.4%; median age 53.8 years (range, 18 to 89 y), 54.3% females] recurred within a median 5.6 months (range, 0.2 to 34.9 mo). Number of prior CDI episodes, prior CDI treatment, and prior CDI-related hospitalizations were similar in cases and controls. Systemic antibiotics after FMT (54.3% vs. 21.4%, P<0.0001), inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) (34.3% vs. 15.7%, P=0.01), pseudomembranes at FMT (4.3% vs. 0%, P=0.03), and poor bowel preparation (68.5% vs. 31.4%, P=0.01) were associated with FMT failure. On multivariate analysis, IBD [odds ratio (OR) 4.34; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.24-15.15], systemic antibiotics (OR 7.39; 95% CI, 3.02-18.07), and poor bowel preparation (OR 3.84; 95% CI, 1.59-9.28) predicted FMT failure with an area under the curve of 0.78. Among FMT failures, 37 (52.8%) were managed with antibiotics, 32 (45.7%) with repeat FMT after antibiotics and 1 with colectomy. Conclusions: Use of systemic antibiotics, IBD, and poor bowel preparation predict FMT failure. Patients with FMT failure can be managed with antibiotics and/or repeat FMT.
- Clostridioides difficile
- fecal microbiota transplantation
- inflammatory bowel disease
- recurrent C. difficile
ASJC Scopus subject areas