Practice effects and longitudinal cognitive change in normal aging vs. Incident mild cognitive impairment and dementia in the mayo clinic study of aging

Mary M. Machulda, V. Shane Pankratz, Teresa J. Christianson, Robert J. Ivnik, Michelle M. Mielke, Rosebud O. Roberts, David S. Knopman, Bradley F. Boeve, Ronald C. Petersen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

69 Scopus citations

Abstract

The objective of this study was to examine practice effects and longitudinal cognitive change in a population-based cohort classified as clinically normal at their initial evaluation. We examined 1390 individuals with a median age of 78.1 years and re-evaluated them up to four times at approximate 15-month intervals, with an average follow-up time of 5 years. Of the 1390 participants, 947 (69%) individuals remained cognitively normal, 397 (29%) progressed to mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and 46 (3%) to dementia. The stable normal group showed an initial practice effect in all domains which was sustained in memory and visuospatial reasoning. There was only a slight decline in attention and language after visit 3. We combined individuals with incident MCI and dementia to form one group representing those who declined. The incident MCI/dementia group showed an unexpected practice effect in memory from baseline to visit 2, with a significant decline thereafter. This group did not demonstrate practice effects in any other domain and showed a downward trajectory in all domains at each evaluation. Modeling cognitive change in an epidemiologic sample may serve as a useful benchmark for evaluating cognitive change in future intervention studies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1247-1264
Number of pages18
JournalClinical Neuropsychologist
Volume27
Issue number8
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 1 2013

Keywords

  • Alzheimer's disease
  • Cognition
  • Memory
  • Mild cognitive impairment
  • Practice effects

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuropsychology and Physiological Psychology
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Clinical Psychology
  • Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
  • Psychiatry and Mental health

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