Background & Aims Restorative proctocolectomy with ileal pouch–anal anastomosis (IPAA) is the surgical procedure most commonly selected for patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) or ulcerative colitis that is refractive to medical treatment. Pouchitis is the most common complication in patients with ulcerative colitis after IPAA, but is thought to rarely occur in patients with FAP. We investigated the frequency of pouchitis and other pouch-related complications in patients with FAP after IPAA. Methods We performed a retrospective cohort study of all patients with FAP who underwent IPAA at a single tertiary institution from 1992 through 2015 (n = 113). Patients were identified using International Classification of Diseases-9 diagnostic and current procedural terminology codes. We obtained relevant demographic and clinical data from patients’ electronic medical records. The frequencies of pouchitis and pouch-related complications were determined. Results Twenty-five patients (22.1%) developed pouchitis (mean time to pouchitis, 4.1 years) and 88 did not (77.9%). Patients with pouchitis showed a trend toward developing late (>90 days after IPAA) pouch-related complications (56.0% of patients with pouchitis developed late complications, compared with 36.4% without). In patients who developed pouchitis, the disease course was acute in 72.0% and chronic in 28.0%. Of those treated, 69.6% responded to antibiotics, 13.0% became dependent on antibiotics, and 13.0% developed antibiotic resistance. Conclusions Pouchitis is more prevalent in patients with FAP than previously believed. Although pouchitis seems to occur later in patients with FAP than in patients with ulcerative colitis, and have a milder course, it should be considered a common complication among patients with FAP following IPAA.
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