One hundred twenty-six patients underwent postoperative fiberoptic T-tube tract choledochoscopy for the management of retained biliary calculi as demonstrated by T-tube cholangiography. Extraction was successful in 94% of patients with retained stones. Thirty-nine patients had more than 1 stone, 20 patients had hepatic duct stones, and 14 patients had large stones requiring electrohydraulic lithotripsy or laser fragmentation. Stone removal was not possible in six patients, secondary to either slippage of the T-tube with obliteration of the tract, inability to remove the stones with available instruments, a tortuous tract, or choledochoscope malfunction. Minor complications, most commonly transient fever, occurred in 12 patients. No serious complications or deaths occurred. The advantages of T-tube tract choledochoscopy include direct visualization of the biliary tree, avoidance of radiation exposure, and easy access to hepatic duct stones. This is the preferred method for treating retained biliary calculi in patients with a T-tube in situ.
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