Introduction: Recent studies have found vedolizumab to be an independent predictor of increased rates of postoperative complications and surgical site infections (SSIs) in adults with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), but studies in the pediatric surgical population are lacking. We sought to determine the 30-day postoperative infectious complication rate among pediatric IBD patients who received vedolizumab within 12 weeks of a major abdominal operation. Methods: A retrospective chart review was performed on pediatric IBD patients who underwent an abdominal operation between 5/20/2014 and 6/1/2017. The study cohort was comprised of pediatric patients (≤ 18 years) who received vedolizumab within 12 weeks prior to their abdominal operation. The control cohort was all patients operated on for IBD during the same time on anti-TNF therapy within 12 weeks of their abdominal operation. Results: Thirteen pediatric patients (5 female) received vedolizumab within 12 weeks of an abdominal operation and 36 patients received anti TNF therapy (20 female). There were no differences in the vedolizumab and anti-TNF therapy with regard to sex, median age of diagnosis or operation, IBD type, body mass index (BMI), smoking status, diabetes mellitus (DM), preoperative serum laboratory values, steroid or immunomodulatory use. The number of biologics previously exposed to was significantly higher in the vedolizumab treated patients (p < 0.0001). There were no significant differences in operative characteristics including laparoscopic versus open surgery, construction of an anastomosis, or diversion of an anastomosis. There were also no significant differences found in 30-day postoperative complications including nonsurgical site infections (SSIs), all SSIs, small bowel obstruction (SBO)/ileus, hospital readmission, or return to the operating room (ROR). There were four RORs in total: one in the vedolizumab group was for a missed enterotomy and stoma revision; three in the anti-TNF cohort were for ileostomy revisions. Conclusions: None of the thirteen pediatric patients who received vedolizumab within 12 weeks of an abdominal operation experienced a 30-day postoperative SSI or non SSI infectious complication, suggesting that vedolizumab is safe in the perioperative period for pediatric patients with IBD. Owing to the small sample size, future study, perhaps multi-institutional, will be important to confirm these findings. Level of evidence: Retrospective comparative study, Level III.
- Inflammatory bowel disease
- Postoperative outcomes
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health