Portal vein hypoglycemia is essential for full induction of hypoglycemia-associated autonomic failure with slow-onset hypoglycemia

Aleksey V. Matveyenko, Mary Ann Bohland, Maziyar Saberi, Casey M. Donovan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

14 Scopus citations

Abstract

Antecedent hypoglycemia leads to impaired counterregulation and hypoglycemic un-awareness. To ascertain whether antecedent portal vein hypoglycemia impairs portal vein glucose sensing, thereby inducing counterregulatory failure, we compared the effects of antecedent hypoglycemia, with and without normalization of portal vein glycemia, upon the counterregulatory response to subsequent hypoglycemia. Male Wistar rats were chronically cannulated in the carotid artery (sampling), jugular vein (glucose and insulin infusion), and mesenteric vein (glucose infusion). On day 1, the following three distinct antecedent protocols were employed: 1) HYPO-HYPO: systemic hypoglycemia (2.52 ± 0.11 mM); 2) HYPO-EUG: systemic hypoglycemia (2.70 ± 0.03 mM) with normalization of portal vein glycemia (portal vein glucose = 5.86 ± 0.10 mM); and 3) EUG-EUG: systemic euglycemia (6.33 ± 0.31 mM). On day 2, all groups underwent a hyperinsulinemic-hypoglycemic clamp in which the fall in glycemia was controlled so as to reach the nadir (2.34 ± 0.04 mM) by minute 75. Counterregulatory hormone responses were measured at basal (-30 and 0) and during hypoglycemia (60-105 min). Compared with EUG-EUG, antecedent hypoglycemia (HYPO-HYPO) significantly blunted the peak epinephrine (10.44 ± 1.35 vs. 15.75 ± 1.33 nM: P = 0.01) and glucagon (341 ± 16 vs. 597 ± 82 pg/ml: P = 0.03) responses to next-day hypoglycemia. Normalization of portal glycemia during systemic hypoglycemia on day 1 (HYPO-EUG) prevented blunting of the peak epinephrine (15.59 ± 1.43 vs. 15.75 ± 1.33 nM: P = 0.94) and glucagon (523 ± 169 vs. 597 ± 82 pg/ml: P = 0.66) responses to day 2 hypoglycemia. Consistent with hormonal responses, the glucose infusion rate during day 2 hypoglycemia was substantially elevated in HYPO-HYPO (74 ± 12 vs. 49 ± 4 μmol·kg -1·min-1; P = 0.03) but not HYPO-EUG (39 ± 7 vs. 49 ± 4 μmol·kg-1·min-1: P = 0.36). Antecedent hypoglycemia local to the portal vein is required for the full induction of hypoglycemia-associated counterregulatory failure with slow-onset hypoglycemia.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)E857-E864
JournalAmerican Journal of Physiology - Endocrinology and Metabolism
Volume293
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 1 2007

Keywords

  • Counterregulation
  • Glucose sensor
  • Sympathoadrenal

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Physiology
  • Physiology (medical)

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