Portal hypertension is a major complication of cirrhosis, and its consequences, including ascites, esophageal varices, hepatic encephalopathy, and hepatorenal syndrome, lead to substantial morbidity and mortality. The past several decades have seen major improvements in the clinical management of complications of portal hypertension, resulting in substantial gains in patient outcomes. However, important challenges remain. This review focuses on the pathophysiology and diagnosis of portal hypertension and discusses general approaches in the management of patients with ascites as a result of portal hypertension.
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