The developing immune response in the lymph nodes of mice infected with influenza virus has both Th1- and Th2-type characteristics. Modulation of the interactions between antigen-presenting cells and T cells is one mechanism that may alter the quality of the immune response. We have previously shown that the ability of dendritic cells (DC) to stimulate the proliferation of alloreactive T cells is changed by influenza virus due to viral neuraminidase (NA) activity. Here we show that DC infected with influenza virus A/PR/8/34 (PR8) stimulate T cells to produce different types of cytokines in a dose-dependent manner. Optimal amounts of the Th1-type cytokines interleukin-2 (IL-2) and gamma interferon (IFN-γ) were produced from T cells stimulated by DC infected with low doses of PR8, while the Th2-type cytokines IL-4 and IL-10 were produced only in response to DC infected with high doses of PR8. IL-2 and IFN-γ levels corresponded with T-cell proliferation and were dependent on the activity of viral NA on the DC surface. In contrast, IL-4 secretion required the treatment of T cells with NA. Since viral particles were released only from DC that are infected with high doses of PR8, our results suggest that viral NA on newly formed virus particles desialylates T-cell surface molecules to facilitate a Th2-type response. These results suggest that the activity of NA may contribute to the mixed Th-type response observed during influenza virus infection.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Insect Science