Plastic surgery residency graduate outcomes: A 43-year experience at a single institution and the first "integrated" training program in the United States

Shelley S. Noland, Gordon K. Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

9 Scopus citations


INTRODUCTION: The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education emphasizes outcome-based residency education. This project is an outcomes study on graduates of the Stanford University Integrated Plastic Surgery Residency. METHODS: A survey assessing various outcomes, including practice profile, financial, personal, and educational issues, was electronically distributed to all 130 graduates between 1966 and 2009. RESULTS: There was a 65% response rate. Nearly all respondents are currently in practice. Popular fellowships included hand and microsurgery. Most respondents participated in research and held leadership roles. Adequate residency education was noted in areas of patient care, board preparation, and ethical and legal issues. Inadequate residency education was noted in areas of managing a practice, coding, and cost-effective medicine. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first long-term outcomes study of plastic surgery graduates. Most are in active, successful practice. We have incorporated educational content related to running a small business, contract negotiating, and marketing to better prepare our residents for future practice.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)404-409
Number of pages6
JournalAnnals of plastic surgery
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 1 2012



  • graduates
  • outcomes
  • plastic surgery
  • residency education
  • survey

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery

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