Plasma, platelet and red blood cell transfusion ratios for life-threatening non-traumatic haemorrhage in medical and post-surgical patients: An observational study

Luke J. Matzek, Emil B. Kurian, Ryan D. Frank, Timothy J. Weister, Ognjen Gajic, Daryl J. Kor, Matthew A. Warner

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background and Objectives: Despite the broad utilization of component-based transfusion strategies that aim to reconstitute whole blood during acute traumatic haemorrhage, data for haemorrhage occurring outside of trauma and surgery are limited. Methods: This is an observational cohort study of adults experiencing critical non-traumatic, non-intraoperative haemorrhage during hospitalization at an academic medical centre from 2011 to 2015. The primary goal was to evaluate differences in plasma and platelet to red blood cell (RBC) transfusion ratios across patient demographic, clinical and laboratory characteristics. Secondarily, associations between transfusion ratios and clinical outcomes were assessed. Results: Seven hundred nine patients were included: 498 (70.2%) medical and 211 (29.8%) post surgical. The gastrointestinal tract (36.7%) was the most common site of bleeding. Most patients received RBCs without plasma (35.5%) or platelets (54.2%). Among those receiving plasma, 82.3% received a plasma to RBC ratio < 1:1 at 24 h. For platelets, the most common ratio was 1–2:1 (52.9%). Transfusion ratios were generally consistent across comorbid disease severity, admission type and anatomic sites of bleeding. Higher plasma utilization was observed in the emergency department, while greater platelet utilization occurred in intensive care units. Higher transfusion ratios were observed in those with greater laboratory haemostatic abnormalities prior to the haemorrhagic event. Clinical outcome differences were limited, though greater platelet utilization in the first 24 h was associated with higher mortality and fewer hospital-free days. Conclusions: Transfusion ratios for critical non-traumatic haemorrhage were primarily related to laboratory abnormalities preceding the haemorrhagic event and practice environments. Clinical outcome differences across ratios were limited.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalVox Sanguinis
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - 2021

Keywords

  • bleeding
  • critical administration threshold
  • haemorrhage
  • massive transfusion
  • transfusion ratios

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Hematology

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