Physiologically based pharmacokinetic models for everolimus and sorafenib in mice

Dipti K. Pawaskar, Robert M. Straubinger, Gerald J. Fetterly, Bonnie H. Hylander, Elizabeth A. Repasky, Wen W. Ma, William J. Jusko

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

25 Scopus citations

Abstract

Purpose: Everolimus is a mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor approved as an immunosuppressant and for second-line therapy of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Sorafenib is a multikinase inhibitor used as first-line therapy in HCC and RCC. This study assessed the pharmacokinetics (PK) of everolimus and sorafenib alone and in combination in plasma and tissues, developed physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models in mice, and assessed the possibility of PK drug interactions. Methods: Single and multiple oral doses of everolimus and sorafenib were administered alone and in combination in immunocompetent male mice and to severe combined immune-deficient (SCID) mice bearing low-passage, patient-derived pancreatic adenocarcinoma in seven different studies. Plasma and tissue samples including tumor were collected over a 24-h period and analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Distribution of everolimus and sorafenib to the brain, muscle, adipose, lungs, kidneys, pancreas, spleen, liver, GI, and tumor was modeled as perfusion rate-limited, and all data from the diverse studies were fitted simultaneously using a population approach. Results: PBPK models were developed for everolimus and sorafenib. PBPK analysis showed that the two drugs in combination had the same PK as each drug given alone. A twofold increase in sorafenib dose increased tumor exposure tenfold, thus suggesting involvement of transporters in tumor deposition of sorafenib. Conclusions: The developed PBPK models suggested the absence of PK interaction between the two drugs in mice. These studies provide the basis for pharmacodynamic evaluation of these drugs in patient-derived primary pancreatic adenocarcinomas explants.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1219-1229
Number of pages11
JournalCancer chemotherapy and pharmacology
Volume71
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - May 2013

Keywords

  • Everolimus
  • PBPK
  • Pancreatic cancer
  • Patient-derived pancreatic adenocarcinoma
  • Sorafenib

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Toxicology
  • Pharmacology
  • Cancer Research
  • Pharmacology (medical)

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