Physiological dead space and arterial carbon dioxide contributions to exercise ventilatory inefficiency in patients with reduced or preserved ejection fraction heart failure

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Abstract

Aims: Patients with heart failure (HF) with reduced (HFrEF) or preserved (HFpEF) ejection fraction demonstrate an increased ventilatory equivalent for carbon dioxide (V̇E/V̇CO2) slope. The physiological correlates of the V̇E/V̇CO2 slope remain unclear in the two HF phenotypes. We hypothesized that changes in the physiological dead space to tidal volume ratio (VD/VT) and arterial CO2 tension (PaCO2) differentially contribute to the V̇E/V̇CO2 slope in HFrEF vs. HFpEF. Methods and results: Adults with HFrEF (n = 32) and HFpEF (n = 27) [mean ± standard deviation (SD) left ventricular ejection fraction: 22 ± 7% and 61 ± 9%, respectively; mean ± SD body mass index: 28 ± 4 kg/m2 and 33 ± 6 kg/m2, respectively; P < 0.01] performed cardiopulmonary exercise testing with breath-by-breath ventilation and gas exchange measurements. PaCO2 was measured via radial arterial catheterization. We calculated the V̇E/V̇CO2 slope via linear regression, and VD/VT = 1 − [(863 × V̇CO2)/(V̇E × PaCO2)]. Resting VD/VT (0.48 ± 0.08 vs. 0.41 ± 0.11; P = 0.04), but not PaCO2 (38 ± 5 mmHg vs. 40 ± 3 mmHg; P = 0.21) differed between HFrEF and HFpEF. Peak exercise VD/VT (0.39 ± 0.08 vs. 0.32 ± 0.12; P = 0.02) and PaCO2 (33 ± 6 mmHg vs. 38 ± 4 mmHg; P < 0.01) differed between HFrEF and HFpEF. The V̇E/V̇CO2 slope was higher in HFrEF compared with HFpEF (44 ± 11 vs. 35 ± 8; P < 0.01). Variance associated with the V̇E/V̇CO2 slope in HFrEF and HFpEF was explained by peak exercise VD/VT (R2 = 0.30 and R2 = 0.50, respectively) and PaCO2 (R2 = 0.64 and R2 = 0.28, respectively), but the relative contributions of each differed (all P < 0.01). Conclusions: Relationships between the V̇E/V̇CO2 slope and both VD/VT and PaCO2 are robust, but differ between HFpEF and HFrEF. Increasing V̇E/V̇CO2 slope appears to be strongly explained by mechanisms influential in regulating PaCO2 in HFrEF, which contrasts with the strong role of increased VD/VT in HFpEF.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1675-1685
Number of pages11
JournalEuropean Journal of Heart Failure
Volume19
Issue number12
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 2017

Keywords

  • Cardiopulmonary exercise testing
  • Exercise capacity
  • Exercise intolerance
  • Exercise tolerance
  • Exercise ventilatory efficiency
  • Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

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