OBJECTIVE: To describe a novel antibody biomarker of neurologic paraneoplastic autoimmunity specific for phosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10A), a striatum-enriched phosphodiesterase, and to characterize the clinical phenotype of patients with PDE10A immunoglobulin G (IgG). METHODS: We describe 7 patients with autoantibodies specific for PDE10A identified in the Mayo Clinic Neuroimmunology Laboratory. Patient specimens (sera, 7; CSF, 4) produced identical basal ganglia-predominant synaptic staining of murine brain tissue by indirect immunofluorescence. The autoantigen was identified by immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry as PDE10A, and confirmed by antigen-specific recombinant Western blot and cell-based assays, and immune absorption experiments. RESULTS: The median patient age was 70 years (range 66-76); 4 were men. Four patients with clinical information available had movement disorders (hyperkinetic in 3 [chorea, ballismus, dystonia] and parkinsonism in 1). All patients but one had cancer (lung [adenocarcinoma 1, squamous cell carcinoma 1, poorly differentiated mesenchymal carcinoma 1], renal adenocarcinoma 2, and pancreatic adenocarcinoma 1). Two of the 7 patients developed hyperkinetic movement disorders during treatment with immune checkpoint inhibitors (nivolumab and pembrolizumab), though none of 26 cancer control patients treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors harbored PDE10A IgG in their serum. MRIs from those 2 patients with hyperkinetic movement disorders demonstrated fluid-attenuated inversion recovery/T2 basal ganglia hyperintensities, and their CSF harbored unique oligoclonal bands. One of those 2 patients had substantial improvement after corticosteroids. One patient's renal adenocarcinoma expressed PDE10A by immunohistochemistry. CONCLUSIONS: PDE10A IgG defines a novel rare neurologic autoimmune syndrome and expands the spectrum of diagnosable paraneoplastic CNS disorders. The intracellular location of PDE10A suggests a T-cell-mediated pathology targeting cells displaying MHC1-bound PDE10A peptides.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Clinical Neurology