Purpose: Novel therapeutic agents in the treatment of recurrent gliomas are urgently needed. Pyrazoloacridine (PZA), a rationally synthesized acridine derivative, has shown promising antitumor activity against glioma lines in combination with platinum compounds. This phase I/II trial of the PZA/carboplatin combination in recurrent glioma patients consisted of two phase I studies (studies 1 and 2) and a phase II trial (study 3). The objectives of studies 1 and 2 were to (a) assess the safety and toxicity and to establish the phase II dose of the pyrazoloacridine/carboplatin combination for recurrent glioma patients on P450 inducing anticonvulsants, and (b) to confirm the phase II dose for patients not on P450 inducing anticonvulsants. The primary objectives of study 3 were to determine the efficacy of the pyrazoloacridine/ carboplatin combination in patients with recurrent gliomas, to further assess the toxicity of the combination, and to evaluate the impact of enzyme-inducing anticonvulsants on the pyrazoloacridine metabolism. Experimental design: Both carboplatin and pyrazoloacridine were administered intravenously every 28 days. Treatment was continued until unacceptable toxicity, tumor progression or patient withdrawal. Results: 14 patients were treated in the two phase I studies and 32 patients in the phase II trial. The phase II dose of the combination was PZA 400 mg/m 2 and carboplatin AUC of 5 every 28 days. Neutropenia (4 patients) and dyspnea (1 patient) was the dose limiting toxicity in the phase I studies. In the phase II trial, the most frequent toxicity was myelosuppression with grade 3 and 4 hematologic adverse events being observed in 22 and 19% of the patients, respectively. The antitumor activity of this regimen was limited; the response rate in the phase II trial was 0%, (95% CI:0-11%) while 12 of the 32 patients (38%) had stable disease with a median duration of 2 months. The percentage of phase II patients who were progression free at three months was 22% and at six months was 16%. Median survival from study entry was 5.0 months for phase I patients and 5.8 months for phase II patients. Pharmacokinetic analysis performed in 8 phase I patients demonstrated no significant impact of the enzyme-inducing anticonvulsants on the pharmacokinetics of pyrazoloacridine. Conclusions: The phase II dose of the pyrazoloacridine/carboplatin combination is pyrazoloacridine 400 mg/m 2 in combination with carboplatin AUC of 5. Antitumor activity in patients with recurrent gliomas was limited. Initial disease stabilization occurred in approximately 38% of the patients, with median duration of 2 months. Enzyme-inducing anticonvulsants did not affect the pyrazoloacridine metabolism.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pharmacology (medical)