Purpose: The growth of non-Hodgkin lymphomas can be influenced by tumor-immune system interactions. Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) is a negative regulator of T-cell activation that serves to dampen antitumor immune responses. Blocking anti-CTLA-4 monoclonal antibodies improves host resistance to immunogenic tumors, and the anti-CTLA-4 antibody ipilimumab (MDX-010) has clinical activity against melanoma, prostate, and ovarian cancers. Experimental Design: We did a phase I trial of ipilimumabi n patients with relapsed/refractory B-cell lymphoma to evaluate safety, immunologic activity, and potential clinical efficacy. Treatment consisted of ipilimumabat 3 mg/kg and then monthly at 1 mg/kg x 3 months (dose level 1), with subsequent escalation to 3 mg/kg monthly x 4 months (dose level 2). Results: Eighteen patients were treated, 12 at the lower dose level and 6 at the higher dose level. Ipilimumabwas generally well tolerated, with common adverse events attributed to it, including diarrhea, headache, abdominal pain, anorexia, fatigue, neutropenia, and thrombocytopenia. Two patients had clinical responses; one patient with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma had an ongoing complete response (>31 months), and one with follicular lymphoma had a partial response lasting 19 months. In 5 of 16 cases tested (31%), T-cell proliferation to recall antigens was significantly increased (>2-fold) after ipilimumab therapy. Conclusions: Blockade of CTLA-4 signaling with the use of ipilimumabis well tolerated at the doses used and has antitumor activity in patients with B-cell lymphoma. Further evaluation of ipilimumab alone or in combination with other agents in B-cell lymphoma patients is therefore warranted.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research