This phase I study evaluates the safety, MTD, pharmacokinetics (PK), pharmacodynamics, and preliminary anticancer activity of enavatuzumab, a humanized IgG1 antibody to the TWEAK receptor, in patients with advanced solid malignancies. Patients received escalating doses of enavatuzumab given intravenously over 60 minutes every 2 weeks. Blood was obtained for PK and biomarker assessment. Three patients were enrolled per dose level in a standard 3 + 3 design with response assessment by RECIST version 1.0, every 8 weeks. Thirty patients were enrolled at 6 dose levels ranging from 0.1 to 1.5 mg/kg. Dose-limiting toxicities included grade 4 (G4) lipase, G3 bilirubin, and G4 amylase elevations. There was no apparent correlation of liver or pancreatic enzyme elevation with drug exposure or the presence of liver metastases. Enavatuzumab exhibited a two-compartment linear PK model. Estimated systemic clearance was 23 to 33 mL/h with an elimination half-life of 7 to 18 days. The predicted target efficacious peak and trough concentrations occurred at 1.0 mg/kg following the second dose. There were no objective responses; 4 patients had stable disease. The MTD of enavatuzumab is 1.0 mg/kg i.v. every 2 weeks. Higher doses were not tolerated due to hepatopancreatic lab abnormalities. Further evaluation of the mechanisms of the liver and pancreatic enzyme toxicities is needed before embarking on further single-agent or combination strategies.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research