Purpose: Proteasome inhibition results in cytotoxicity to the leukemia stem cell in vitro. We conducted this phase I study to determine if the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib could be safely added to induction chemotherapy in patients with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). Experimental Design: Bortezomib was given on days 1, 4, 8, and 11 at doses of 0.7, 1.0, 1.3, or 1.5 mg/m2 with idarubicin 12 mg/m2 on days 1 to 3 and cytarabine 100 mg/m 2/day on days 1 to 7. Results: A total of 31 patients were enrolled. The median age was 62 years, and 16 patients were male. Nine patients had relapsed AML (ages, 18-59 years, n = 4 and ≥60 years, n = 5). There were 22 patients of ≥60 years with previously untreated AML (eight with prior myelodysplasia/myeloproliferative disorder or cytotoxic therapy). All doses of bortezomib, up to and including 1.5 mg/m2, were tolerable. Nonhematologic grade 3 or greater toxicities included 12 hypoxia (38%; 11 were grade 3), 4 hyperbilirubinemia (13%), and 6 elevated aspartate aminotransferase (19%). Overall, 19 patients (61%) achieved complete remission (CR) and three had CR with incomplete platelet recovery. Pharmacokinetic studies revealed that the total body clearance of bortezomib decreased significantly (P < 0.01, N = 26) between the first (mean ± SD, 41.9 ± 17.1 L/h/m2) and th ird (18.4 ± 7.0 L/h/m2) doses. Increased bone marrow expression of CD74 was associated with CR. Conclusions: The combination of bortezomib, idarubicin, and cytarabine showed a good safety profile. The recommended dose of bortezomib for phase II studies with idarubicin and cytarabine is 1.5 mg/m2.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research