Purpose: The objectives of this phase 1, first-in-human study were to determine the dose-limiting toxicities (DLT), maximum tolerated dose (MTD), safety, pharmacokinetics, and preliminary activity of the hypoxia-activated prodrug TH-302 in patients with advanced solid tumors. Experimental Design: TH-302 was administered intravenously over 30 to 60 minutes in two regimens: three times weekly dosing followed by 1 week off (arm A) and every 3-week dosing (arm B). Results: Fifty-seven patients enrolled (arm A: N = 37 and arm B: N = 20). The TH-302 dose was escalated from 7.5 to 670 mg/m2 in arm A and from 670 to 940 mg/m2 in arm B. The most common adverse events were nausea, skin rash, fatigue, and vomiting. Hematologic toxicity was mild and limited. Grade 3 skin and mucosal toxicities were dose limiting at 670 mg/m2 in arm A; the MTD was 575 mg/m2. In arm B, grade 3 fatigue and grade 3 vaginitis/proctitis were dose limiting at 940 mg/m2; the MTD was 670 mg/m2. Plasma concentrations of TH-302 and the active metabolite Br-IPM (brominated version of isophosphoramide mustard) increased proportionally with dose. Two partial responses were noted in patients with metastatic small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and melanoma in arm A at 480 and 670 mg/m2. Stable disease was observed in arms A and B in 18 and 9 patients, respectively. Conclusions: The MTD of TH-302 was 575 mg/m2 weekly and 670 mg/m2 every 3 weeks. Skin and mucosal toxicities were DLTs. On the basis of responses in metastatic melanoma and SCLC, further investigations in these indications were initiated.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research