Selinexor, an oral Selective Inhibitor of Nuclear Export, targets Exportin 1 (XPO1, also termed CRM1). Non-clinical studies support combining selinexor with proteasome inhibitors (PIs) and corticosteroids to overcome resistance in relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM). We conducted a phase I dose-escalation trial of twice-weekly selinexor in combination with carfilzomib and dexamethasone (SKd) to determine maximum tolerated dose in patients with RRMM (N = 21), with an expansion cohort to assess activity in carfilzomib-refractory disease and identify a recommended phase II dose (RP2D). During dose escalation, there was one dose-limiting toxicity (cardiac failure). The RP2D of twice-weekly SKd was selinexor 60 mg, carfilzomib 20/27 mg/m2 and dexamethasone 20 mg. The most common grade 3/4 treatment-emergent adverse events included thrombocytopenia (71%), anaemia (33%), lymphopenia (33%), neutropenia (33%) and infections (24%). Rates of ≥minimal response, ≥partial response and very good partial response were 71%, 48% and 14%, respectively; similar response outcomes were observed for dual-class refractory (PI and immunomodulatory drug)/quad-exposed (carfilzomib, bortezomib, lenalidomide and pomalidomide) patients (n = 17), and patients refractory to carfilzomib in last line of therapy (n = 13). Median progression-free survival was 3·7 months, and overall survival was 22·4 months in the overall population. SKd was tolerable and re-established disease control in RRMM patients, including carfilzomib-refractory patients. Registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02199665).
- relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma
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