Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) comprise a heterogeneous group of organisms, with only a small subset known to cause disease in humans. Although NTM infection is not a reportable disease, both the increasing clinical recognition and recent advancements in laboratory diagnostic capabilities of NTM infections in immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients are rapidly evolving. We reviewed antimicrobial agents used to treat the most frequently encountered NTM infections and examined optimized drug dosing strategies, toxicity profiles, drug-drug interactions, and the role of therapeutic drug monitoring. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing and patient monitoring on therapy were also examined. We used PubMed to review the published literature on the management of select NTM pathogens, the common syndromes encountered since 2000, and select pharmacokinetic principles of select antimicrobial agents used since 1990. We included select clinical trials, systematic reviews, published guidelines, and observational studies when applicable. The prolonged duration and the necessity for combination therapy for most forms of NTM disease can be problematic for many patients. A multidisciplinary care team that includes pharmacy engagement may help increase rates of optimal patient tolerability and successful treatment completion.
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